Global Health and Sustainable Development
Global health is an expansive area with increasing relevance. The subject has its roots in public health and international health. By definition, global health is a combination and integration of classic patient-focused medicine and interventions for improved health at the community level. Global health stands on two legs that reflect this. One one hand, the topic is about creating readiness to cope with global and transnational health threats such as antibiotic resistance, outbreaks of new viral diseases or the increasing rate of obesity and obesity in the world. On the other hand, it is about studying and counteracting health inequalities based on socio-economic and cultural factors. Both of these main tasks for global health mean that the subject is interdisciplinary in nature, as basic medical research and clinical medicine must be combined with social and behavioral science, law, natural sciences and technology, etc. in order to solve the complex problems that the topic addresses.
Global health has evolved as a result of global social development. In recent decades, the world has seen an incomparably rapid development that has reshaped demographics, epidemiology and conditions for the world's population. Today, the majority of the world's population lives in middle-income countries, with their basic health and life needs met. While the gap between the poorest and wealthiest fifth of the world's population is enormous and continues to widen, poverty has halved over the past 40 years and child mortality has dropped dramatically, which, together with improved living conditions later in life, have led to an increase in life expectancy, which today is 74 years on average globally. We have gone from a bipolar world with developing and developing countries to a common and increasingly integrated reality. These remarkable improvements have not only reshaped the conditions and opportunities for the world's population and brought us all closer together, they have also meant that today we have global challenges that we have never had to deal with before. It is in this situation that global health seems.
The Global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) address the challenges facing the world today. The 17 sustainability goals emphasize global responsibility and that no country can handle the task alone. Agenda 2030 is therefore about how we can transform goals into action and build sustainable societies for everyone. The sustainability agenda has three dimensions: the ecological, the economic and the social, and although much has come to deal with the acute environmental and climate threats the world today has to deal with, all three dimensions are necessary, which is emphasized in global health. For example, the ecological challenges create changing conditions for infectious diseases and food supply, with the risk of new epidemics, increased malnutrition and migration globally. The economic challenges relate, for example, to poverty, changing consumption patterns and over-consumption, antibiotic resistance and financing of health systems. Social sustainability is about how the rights perspective can be implemented to achieve the best possible health for all and how equity in health can be promoted.
The third sustainability goal, SDG3, is about health and is central since good health is both dependent on and an outcome of the others. The World Health Organization WHO drives the perspective "Health in All Policies" to emphasize the importance of health for and as a measure of sustainable development.